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Rationale

In Australia, increasing living standards have led to a significant reduction in the rates of infectious diseases. The benefits of abundant resources have also led to a high prevalence of preventable diseases arising from lifestyle patterns. Because of these trends, lifestyle dependent diseases will likely be a greater threat to Australian public health than infectious diseases in the future. This report will investigate AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and CVD (cardiovascular disease) to compare the threats posed by infectious and lifestyle dependent diseases. Recent advances in medicine have made AIDS a treatable condition, lowering the mortality rate substantially. To the contrary, the Australian lifestyle is conducive to CVD, because of lifestyle factors, like diet and exercise. The following information to highlight HIV and CVD effect Australian mortality.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) has always been a matter of global concern. When highly active antiretroviral therapy has not been developed, patients who suffered from HIV always infected tumor problem and opportunistic infection, including cardiovascular effect. Since the advent of antiretroviral drugs in the mid-1990s, AIDS cases in Australia have decreased dramatically, HIV patients can take medicine to control the condition. Advances in medicine have made AIDS a treatable situation, medicine can be taken to prevent HIV to worsen and reduce the risk .

In CVD, global CVD kills about 17.5 million people each year, WHO estimated that by 2030, the death toll will be increased to about 24 million. (REF. WHI) Due to the Australian lifestyle is conducive development of CVD which affects one in six Australians. Also, CVD was the main cause of more than 575,800 hospitalisations in 2016/17. (REF. HEART FOUNDATION)

Therefore, this report proposes the following research question:



Will cardiovascular disease affect the mortality in Australia more than AIDS in 2030?’

Background

AIDS is a set of symptoms caused by HIV. When HIV gets inside a person’s body, it attacks the human immune system. HIV attacks CD4 cells of immune system cell in the body. (REF. HEALTHLINE) Most commonly, people get or transmit HIV through sexual behaviours and needle use. Also, HIV may be spread from mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. (REF. UNAIDS) Gay men and other men who have sex with men are more easily to receive AIDS than the ordinary person. The importance reasons to HIV among this group is that unprotected anal sex. Anal sex is higher risk to transmission AIDS than vaginal sex. In Australia, men who have sex with men is most risk, overall men who have sex with men comprise around two-third of new HIV diagnoses. (REF. MSM)

CVD (Cardiovascular diseases) is the number 1 cause of death globally, was the underlying cause of death in 45,400 deaths in 2015 (29% of all deaths) according to the AIHW National Mortality Database. (REF. AIHW) CVDs are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and they include coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic heart disease. As a result of Australian abundant sources, many people overtake the unhealthy diet and obesity increase the incidence of heart disease. Also, fast food is easy to be purchased at the street. Saturated fat such as meat, butter and fried food will block the artery of heart. Smoking, overweighting and lack of exercises will also be led to CVD. Australian may have a wrong concept that drug abuse and heavy drinking can relieve their stress in life. However, these behaviours will actually cause CVD. Furthermore, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high blood pressure to raise your risk for heart disease and stroke. LDL is something called “bad” cholesterol, can build up on the walls of your blood vessels. As of build up over time, the insides of the vessels narrow. This narrowing block blood flow to and from your heart and other organs, it can cause strokes and heart attacks. (REF. CDC)

Evidence

Figure 2: People living with HIV (all ages)

As evident from the data in Figure 1 which shows trends in CVD hospitalisation rates in 2005-06 to 2015-16. Obviously, males have CVD is more than females that shown in figure 1.  Between 2005-06 to 2015-16, males and females have been a slight increase in the hospitalisation rate.

As evident from the data Figure 2 which shows trends from 1990 to 2018. Between 1990 and 1996 have remained constant. Between 1998 to 2918 have increased sharply. Compare to Figure 1 and Figure 2, trends in HIV are increased noticeably.

Figure 3: Trends in CVD deaths, by sex, 1985-2015

As evident from the data in Figure 3 which shows trends in CVD death, by sex from 1985 to 2015. In 1985, CVD death in males is around 610 (per 100,000 population); in 2015, CVD death in males is around 180 (per 100,000 population), there has been a sharp decrease between 1985 to 2015.

In 1985, CVD death in females is around 410 (per 100,000 population); in 2015, CVD death in females is around 140 (per 100,000 population), there has been a sharp decrease between 1985 to 2015.

Nowaday, medical advances can decrease the trends in CVD deaths. On the contrary, medical advances is not developed in 1985.

As evident from the data in table 4 which shows AIDS relater deaths in Australia in1990 to 2018. Between 1990 and 1995, AIDS-related mortality rate has increased sharply. In 1996 and 1997 AID-related mortality rate plummeted. Between 1998 and 2018, have remained constant. It can show AIDS relater deaths in Australian has been a slight decrease. As medicine has made AIDS a treatable condition, lowering the mortality rate substantially. Between 1985 and 1987, FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved first ELISA ( Enzyme Linked Immunodeficiency Assay) test kit to screen for antibodies to HIV and become the first drug approved for the treatment of AIDS. (REF. FDA) therefore, morality plummets more than 500 people.

Compare to Figure 3 and Figure 4, it can show the medicine have made both of the disease a treatable condition. By contrast, AIDS-related mortality rate is decreased by 2030.

Evaluation

There are issue associates with the evidence presented however. The Australian mortality rate in CVD death is higher than AIDS-related. It could be Australian to have a high quality of life, and having an unhealthy diet increase the incidence of heart disease. CVD is a global concern and the age of patients are gradually became younger. Due to the increased rate of obesity and decreased exercise levels, cardiovascular disease is one of Australia’s largest health problems. It could be assumed that Australian disregard obesity and exercise, the mortality rate in CVD continuously rising. By contrast, AIDS can control by the drugs, expected can ending AIDS by 2030.

Conclusion

In conclusion, cardiovascular disease affects the Australian mortality is more than AIDS in 2030. In various results, the trend of CVD development is high than AIDS. Due to Australia is a development country, abundant resources can lead to increased risk of CVD. Also,  advances in medicine have made AIDS a treatable condition, can decrease mortality of AIDS and become a treatable, chronic disease. As a result, the mortality of CVD will continue to rise until 2030.


Reference List

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•     Australia. (2019). Retrieved 25 August 2019, from https://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/australia

•     Cardiovascular disease snapshot, Formats – Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2018). Retrieved 25 August 2019, from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/heart-stroke-vascular-disease/cardiovascular-health-compendium/formats

•     Department of Health | Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (2014). Retrieved 25 August 2019, from https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cdna-song-HIV.htm

•     Foundation, T. (2019). Heart disease in Australia. Retrieved 25 August 2019, from https://www.heartfoundation.org.au/about-us/what-we-do/heart-disease-in-australia

•     Global Hearts Initiative. (2019). Retrieved 25 August 2019, from https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/15-09-2016-global-hearts-initiative

•     High blood pressure (hypertension) – Symptoms and causes. (2018). Retrieved 25 August 2019, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/symptoms-causes/syc-20373410

•     HIV and AIDS: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, and More. (2018). Retrieved 25 August 2019, from https://www.healthline.com/health/hiv-aids#hiv-statistics

•     HIV Transmission | HIV Basics | HIV/AIDS | CDC. (2019). Retrieved 25 August 2019, from https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/transmission.html

•     HuffPost is now a part of Oath. (2017). Retrieved 25 August 2019, from https://www.huffpost.com/entry/how-does-the-immune-system-really-work_b_5a2315cfe4b05072e8b569ca?guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbS8&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAAGVPjPIfm_3eAyToiWc5q3sUK8uM9oQm5d5YQsRwp39LV61UTfIuxgDQKyX7RHgk_Wgqi0fBlV6CiX9JCtzro_RcR_iv2eYFlx8Lx4T41mlEf5GCgaXXYbRmFJP3IpEtafeh3AnLjpmDC7_oU479yQnrrqN0Fr6qRONqyRr9KdE2

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https://www.cdc.gov/cholesterol/ldl_hdl.htm

•     Men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV and AIDS. (2019). Retrieved 29 August 2019, from https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-social-issues/key-affected-populations/men-sex-men

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•     What Are HIV & AIDS?. (2018). Retrieved 25 August 2019, from https://www.thewellproject.org/hiv-information/what-are-hiv-aids?gclid=CjwKCAjw1_PqBRBIEiwA71rmtSFKocaU7COQVPv78Nf5g8HDcF_gtMEEd0RjA2NzHw3_zoOSmPGsDBoCb8oQAvD_BwE

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https://www.avert.org/about-hiv-aids/what-hiv-aids

•     SMART StudyStrategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Study. (2006). Retrieved 26 August 2019, from

http://www.natap.org/2006/CROI/CROI_21.htm

Men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV and AIDS. (2019). Retrieved 29 August 2019, from https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-social-issues/key-affected-populations/men-sex-men

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